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Arquitectura ante cambios demográficos: la vivienda existente para gente mayor

  • Autores: Marc De Rooij
  • Directores de la Tesis: Magda Saura i Carulla (dir. tes.)
  • Lectura: En la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) ( España ) en 2015
  • Idioma: español
  • Materias:
  • Enlaces
    • Tesis en acceso abierto en: TDX
  • Resumen
    • Main purpose of this study was to reveal the relevance of architecture to demographic change, with particular interest in existing private housing in Spain. The demographic shift of the population is one of the most significant changes in the world today. World population not only increases but also gets older. lnstitutional healthcare and architecture for the elderly deserves attention due to this significant demographic change. However, research and different trends suggest that a more diverse application of adaptation, or regeneration, concerning the private senior citizen housing is needed. Housing adaptation, or housing regeneration, has several objectives. First, and as a first short-term objective, a need exists for functional improvement of private housing that allows older people to remain longer in their own homes independently. Second, create architecture with environments that incourage cognitive and physical skills, in other words: create stimulating environments at home or nearby. The third objective is the preparation of housing stock for the inevitable post-aging era, and create a social-sustainable architecture. Three main reasons why the existing prívate dwelling is the principal object of speech to demographic changes are the following: (1) most older people prefer, while they can, to continue living in their own home; (2) our home is an important tool to support memory; (3) in the coming years the restructuring of the construction sector in Spain will be aimed at rehabilitation and accordingly at existing housing. However, prívate housing in Spain is not prepared to respond properly to demographic changes because most dwellings are not properly accessible. The degree of accessibility of residential buildings, according to data from 2011, is very low: only 24% is accessible. Another reason why the existing housing is not prepared is under-utilization of space which equates to energy loss and inefficient use. To conceive a suitable housing stock for an aging society and anticipate changing social-economic structures, it is advisable to distinguish 5 types of adaptation that respond to independent, healthy, and active aging: 1) Functional adjustment is the most solution orientated and already widely known and applied adaptation. Such adaptation may be defined as medical because it solves certain physical problems related to mobility and task execution in specific places. 2) Social adjustment is considered a solution orientated adaptation as well as a preventive adaptation. Social adaptation is divided into two main objectives: first, provide housing with correct orientation and spaces for social interaction both visually and physically, and second, provide housing with space for long term- social or medical assistance at home. 3) Work adjustment is the guideline that provides not only the incorporation of activity and working spaces at home or nearby, but also provides architectural and urban models to create a stimulating environment for business activities. 4) Sensory adjustment can be divided into two groups of incitement: physical stimulation and psychological stimulation. This guideline includes models to increase physical and mental activity and also models to develop self-esteem. 5) The last guideline considers the demographic dynamism. Regenerative adjustment can be considered the most generic guideline, yet indispensable as a footnote of relativity. The purpose of sustainable buildings implies that from conception a housing development has to be considered a socio-sustainable entity adaptable to demographic and social-economic changes.

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