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Natural language processing using deep learning in social media

  • Autores: María Teresa Giménez Fayos
  • Directores de la Tesis: Javier Palanca Cámara (dir. tes.), Vicente J. Botti Navarro (dir. tes.)
  • Lectura: En la Universitat Politècnica de València ( España ) en 2021
  • Idioma: español
  • Tribunal Calificador de la Tesis: Florentino Fernández Riverola (presid.), Agustín Rafael Espinosa Minguet (secret.), Maria Goreti Carvalho Marreiros (voc.)
  • Materias:
  • Enlaces
    • Tesis en acceso abierto en: RiuNet
  • Resumen
    • In the last years, Deep Learning (DL) has revolutionised the potential of automatic systems that handle Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks.

      We have witnessed a tremendous advance in the performance of these systems. Nowadays, we found embedded systems ubiquitously, determining the intent of the text we write, the sentiment of our tweets or our political views, for citing some examples.

      In this thesis, we proposed several NLP models for addressing tasks that deal with social media text. Concretely, this work is focused mainly on Sentiment Analysis and Personality Recognition tasks.

      Sentiment Analysis is one of the leading problems in NLP, consists of determining the polarity of a text, and it is a well-known task where the number of resources and models proposed is vast.

      In contrast, Personality Recognition is a breakthrough task that aims to determine the users' personality using their writing style, but it is more a niche task with fewer resources designed ad-hoc but with great potential.

      Despite the fact that the principal focus of this work was on the development of Deep Learning models, we have also proposed models based on linguistic resources and classical Machine Learning models. Moreover, in this more straightforward setup, we have explored the nuances of different language devices, such as the impact of emotions in the correct classification of the sentiment expressed in a text.

      Afterwards, DL models were developed, particularly Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), to address previously described tasks. In the case of Personality Recognition, we explored the two approaches, which allowed us to compare the models under the same circumstances.

      Noteworthy, NLP has evolved dramatically in the last years through the development of public evaluation campaigns, where multiple research teams compare the performance of their approaches under the same conditions. Most of the models here presented were either assessed in an evaluation task or either used their setup. Recognising the importance of this effort, we curated and developed an evaluation campaign for classifying political tweets.

      In addition, as we advanced in the development of this work, we decided to study in-depth CNNs applied to NLP tasks.

      Two lines of work were explored in this regard.

      Firstly, we proposed a semantic-based padding method for CNNs, which addresses how to represent text more appropriately for solving NLP tasks. Secondly, a theoretical framework was introduced for tackling one of the most frequent critics of Deep Learning: interpretability. This framework seeks to visualise what lexical patterns, if any, the CNN is learning in order to classify a sentence.

      In summary, the main achievements presented in this thesis are: - The organisation of an evaluation campaign for Topic Classification from texts gathered from social media.

      - The proposal of several Machine Learning models tackling the Sentiment Analysis task from social media. Besides, a study of the impact of linguistic devices such as figurative language in the task is presented.

      - The development of a model for inferring the personality of a developer provided the source code that they have written.

      - The study of Personality Recognition tasks from social media following two different approaches, models based on machine learning algorithms and handcrafted features, and models based on CNNs were proposed and compared both approaches.

      - The introduction of new semantic-based paddings for optimising how the text was represented in CNNs.

      - The definition of a theoretical framework to provide interpretable information to what CNNs were learning internally.

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