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Una modificació de la pedalada. Estudis mecànic i biomecànic. Repercussió en la limitació de la flexió de genoll

  • Autores: Emilio Curià Jové
  • Directores de la Tesis: José Juan Fernández Martínez (dir. tes.), Salvador Cardona Foix (codir. tes.)
  • Lectura: En la Universitat de Lleida ( España ) en 2010
  • Idioma: español
  • Materias:
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  • Resumen
    • INTRODUCTION In everyday life and in every day practice, one can observe people with limited flexor movement of the knee. Of these, people with a complete knee replacement stand out by their sheer number. This limitation impedes them from the realisation of a number of activities including the riding of a bicycle, which, at the highest point of the pedal cycle requires a greater flexion of the knee joint than this pathology allows.

      HYPOTHESIS AND OBJECTIVES To design, construct and study an oscillating pedal system which would permit the impulsion of a bicycle while requiring considerably less flexion of the knee than a conventional bicycle, that would permit the coordinated movement of both extremities and at the same time, not penalise the force required in comparison with a conventional bicycle.

      MATERIAL AND METHOD Two dimensional theoretical, computer simulated mathematical and biomechanical studies are made of the oscillating pedal movement through filming simultaneously of four muscle groups for kinematic and EMG registration. The filming of 19 healthy subjects pedalling both types of bicycle, with their heels fixed so as to isolate the mobility of the hip and knee while pedalling, simulated by this means a kinematic 4 bar linkage to facilitate the estimation of the dynamic and mechanical efficiency of the movement.

      RESULTS The results of the kinematic study reveal that, for the configuration used, the oscillating pedal bicycle required less flexion of the knee in the highest point of the pedal cycle, proportioned a longer propulsion phase, obliged the femoral segment to inscribe a larger arc of travel, improved the mean efficiency during the propulsive phase and reduced the pressure of the patella-femoral joint respect to a conventional bicycle. The mathematical study with PAM and ADAMS confirmed the kinematic results. It also gave additional information on the force imparted by the knee in the most mechanically favourable part of the pedal cycle for both models and more information on the duration of impulsive torque produced. These results also proved favourable to the modified bicycle over the conventional pedal type.

      CONCLUSIONS The oscillating bar articulated quadrilateral pedal system allows the impulsion of the bicycle with less flexion of the knee; modifies the dynamics of the inferior extremity during seated pedalling; could reduce the mean pressure on the patella-femoral joint; permits improved mechanical efficiency of the force applied to the pedal; and creates the possibility of offering those with limited knee flexion the opportunity of riding a bicycle.

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