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Experimental analysis of thermal management influence on performance and emissions in diesel engines at low ambient temperature

  • Autores: Ausiás Alberto Moratal Martínez
  • Directores de la Tesis: Francisco Payri González (dir. tes.), José Manuel Luján Martínez (dir. tes.)
  • Lectura: En la Universitat Politècnica de València ( España ) en 2018
  • Idioma: español
  • Materias:
  • Enlaces
    • Tesis en acceso abierto en: RiuNet
  • Resumen
    • Automotive world-wide pollutant emissions regulations are getting more stringent every day. New testing procedures are pushing the automotive industry towards researching new technologies to accomplish the emissions targets. In the mid-term future is expected that low ambient temperature emissions testing will become mandatory for any engine model type approval. Low ignition temperature greatly influences on combustion rate leading to emissions increase and eventually to misfiring events. In these conditions, high emissions of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) are released along with fuel consumption penalties. In addition, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions may rise under cold conditions owing to the disabling of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems at cold conditions. In this thesis the effect of low ambient temperature in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Light Duty (LD) engine is analysed. Tests were performed in New European Driving Cycles (NEDC) and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Tests (WLTC). Direct influence of low temperature on engine emissions was addressed by engine out pollutants sampling. The effect on aftertreatment systems was also evaluated by the CO and HC oxidation efficiency. The results of this survey indicated a general detriment of pollutant emissions and brake thermal efficiency at low ambient temperatures. The effect of low temperature varied depending on the engine load test conditions. NEDC comes up as the worst scenario for low temperature testing with an increase of 270% in HC, 250% in NOx, 125% in CO and 20% in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). Running at higher engine loads and transient conditions, as it's performed in WLTC tests, showed a lower effect of ambient temperature with an increase of 150% in HC and 250% in NOx. In contrast to NEDC, CO emissions were reduced in 20% and no engine efficiency penalty was spotted. In addition to the pollutant emission formation increase, the aftertreatment analysis showed a significant reduction of the Diesel Oxidative Catalyst (DOC) efficiency in both NEDC and WLTC.

      This work is aimed to analyse and compare two different thermal management approaches for engine enhancement running at low ambient temperature. The first approach relied on coolant management aimed to avoid overcooling when running at cold conditions. On one hand, low flow and 0 flow engine coolant strategies were performed while Water Charge Air Cooled (WCAC) coolant is recirculated. On the other hand, WCAC 0 flow was applied for avoiding overcooling at low ambient temperatures. The other layout was based on an exhaust gas heat recovery system (EGHR). WCAC coolant was directed to an exhaust tail pipe heat exchanger for waste heat recovery. Recovered heat was released in the WCAC for speeding up the intake air temperature increase. The first part of the thermal management results is focused on the analysis by thermal layout. Comparison of both thermal management is discussed in the conclusions section of that chapter. By enabling an EGHR system, HC emissions were reduced during low load driving phases in comparison with the other of layouts.

      EGHR energy analysis was also conducted, focusing on energy efficiency and phase change recovery analysis. The role that latent enthalpy plays on waste heat recovery was addressed by measuring the water vapour concentration in the exhaust stream at both EGHR heat exchanger inlet and outlet. Water vapour condensation represented the 25% of the total recovered energy.

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