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Educational institutions and their effect on inequality: three papers on educational systems and inequality of achievement and opportunity

  • Autores: Jorge Cimentada Báez
  • Directores de la Tesis: Bruno Arpino (dir. tes.)
  • Lectura: En la Universitat Pompeu Fabra ( España ) en 2019
  • Idioma: español
  • Materias:
  • Enlaces
    • Tesis en acceso abierto en: TDX
  • Resumen
    • By placing particular attention to the socio-economic dimension, this thesis explores the role of three pillars of an educational system: decentralization, early education and curricular tracking. The first article focuses on an experiment in Mexico that aimed to increase parental empowerment in the school’s decision-making. The first experiment was conducted by Gertler et al. (2012) and showed decreases in school dropout rates, absenteeism and cognitive abilities. However, their results fail to account for the SES background of the students and whether this effect was mediated by their socioeconomic status. Results show that increased participation produced an increase in cognitive abilities. However, this was mediated by the SES of the student. The second article brings an international perspective by comparing the evolution of the achievement gap in over 15 years and 30 countries. This was never been done yet the work of Van de Werfhorst & Mijs (2010) highlights the need for it. The findings suggest that tracking and vocational enrollment are important explanatory mechanisms of the cross-country variability in achievement gaps in cognitive abilities. The third article revisits the question of whether early education is associated with adult outcomes but concentrating on a particularly vulnerable population in the United States: GED recipients. The work of Heckman et al. (2014) showed that G.E.D recipients were indeed different in terms of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities to high school graduates, yet the literature has failed to study the G.E.D dimension in life-course research related to early education. Results show that participation in early education is associated with greater odds of graduating high school over attaining a G.E.D * Gertler, Paul, Harry Anthony Patrinos, and Eduardo Rodrıguez-Oreggia (2012). “Parental Empowerment in Mexico: Randomized Experiment of the ”Apoyo a La Gestion Escolar (AGE)” Program in Rural Primary Schools in Mexico.” In: Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.

      * Bol, Thijs and Herman G Van de Werfhorst (2013). “Educational systems and the trade-off between labor market allocation and equality of educational opportunity.” In: Comparative Education Review 57.2, pp. 285–308.

      * Heckman, James, John Eric Humphries, and Tim Kautz (2014). The myth of achievement tests: The GED and the role of character in American life. University of Chicago Press.

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