This work is a contribution to the study of various problems that arise from two strongly connected areas of the Graph Theory: graph labelings and graph decompositions, Most graph labelings trace their origins to the ones presented in 1967 by Rosa. One of these labelings, widely known as the graceful labeling, originated as a means of attacking the conjecture of Ringel, which states that the complete graph of order 2m+1 can be decomposed into m copies of a given tree of size m. Here, we study related labelings that give some approaches to Ringel's conjecture, as well as to another conjecture by Graham and Häggkvist that, in a weak form, asks for the decomposition of a complete bipartite graph by a given tree of appropriate size. Our main contributions in this topic are the proof of the latter conjecture for double sized complete bipartite graphs being decomposed by trees with large growth and prime number of edges, and the proof of the fact that every tree is a large subtree of two trees for which both conjectures hold respectively. These results are mainly based on a novel application of the so-called polynomial method by Alon. Another kind of labelings, the magic labelings, are also treated. Motivated by the notion of magic squares in Number Theory, in these type of labelings we want to assign integers to the parts of a graph (vertices, edges, or vertices and edges) in such a way that the sums of the labels assigned to certain substructures of the graph remain constant. We develop techniques based on partitions of certain sets of integers with some additive conditions to construct cycle-magic labelings, a new brand introduced in this work that extends the classical magic labelings. Magic labelings do not provide any graph decomposition, but the techniques that we use to obtain them are the core of another decomposition problem, the ascending subgraph decomposition (ASD). In 1987, was conjectured by Alavi, Boals. Chartrand, Erdös and Oellerman that every graph has an ASD. Here, we study ASD of bipartite graphs, a class of graphs for which the conjecture has not been shown to hold. We give a necessary and a sufficient condition on the one sided degree sequence of a bipartite graph in order that it admits an ASD by star forests. Here the techniques are based on the existence of edge-colorings in bipartite multigraphs. Motivated by the ASD conjecture we also deal with the sumset partition problem, which asks for a partition of [n] in such a way that the sum of the elements of each part is equal to a prescribed value. We give a best possible condition for the modular version of the sumset partition problem that allows us to prove the best known results in the integer case for n a prime. The proof is again based on the polynomial method.