Aim Brachytherapy is an adequate option as monotherapy for localised prostate cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare biochemical failure free survival (BFFS) after low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDRB) alone for patients with prostate cancer using ASTRO and Phoenix criteria, and detect prognostic factors. Methods Data on 220 patients treated between 1998 and 2002 with LDRB were retrospectively analysed. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy was used in 74 (33.6%) patients. Results Median follow-up was 53.5 months (24�116). Five year BFFS was 83.0% and 83.7% using, respectively, the ASTRO and Phoenix criteria. Low -and intermediate-risk patients presented, respectively, 86.7% and 77.8% 5-year BFFS using the ASTRO definition (p=0.069), and 88.5% and 78.6% considering the Phoenix criteria (p=0.016). Bounce was observed in 66 (30%) patients. Multivariate analysis detected PSA at diagnosis <10 ng/ml and less than 50% positive biopsy fragments as favourable prognostic factors, regarding BF using both criteria. For the Phoenix criteria, also Gleason score <7 and low-risk group were identified as independent favourable prognostic factors. Conclusions LDRB alone should be considered mostly for low-risk patients. PSA level was a strong independent prognostic factor. We support the use of the Phoenix criteria for detection of BF in patients submitted to LDRB alone.