Introduction Classic cardiovascular risk factors are present in infancy. C-reactive protein, leptin and adiponectin are the most important inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers.
Patients and methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study, including children aged 6-12years old from two local primary schools in the city of Avilés. Body measurements were made to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured and the presence of metabolic syndrome was determined. Family income, dietary, and life-style habits were collected using the questionnaires GRAFFAR, KIDMED and Self-report instruments for measuring physical activity, respectively. Blood analysis included lipid profile, insulin resistance profile, liver profile, C-reactive protein, leptin and adiponectin.
Results A total of 459 schoolchildren were included of whom 31% were overweight and 10.9% were obese. Obese children were heavier with higher levels of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, C- reactive protein, leptin, and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A than non-obese children. No differences were found in physical and sedentary activities, but obese children had a worse quality diet than non-obese children.
Conclusions Prevalence of obesity and overweight is reaching worrying levels in school age children. Obesity is associated with other classic and inflammatory cardiovascular risk factors. Obese children have a worse quality diet, although they do not do any less physical activities or any more sedentary than non-obese children.